ParadigmConnect Usage/Examples

Code samples and documentation for the various classes exposed by paradigm-connect. See the reference section for more granular documentation of the various class interfaces.

Creating and Signing Orders


The Order constructor accepts an options hash (Javascript Object) as an argument which accepts the following parameters:

  • subContract
  • maker
  • makerArguments
  • takerArguments
  • makerValues
  • makerSignature
  • posterSignature

makerArguments and takerArguments can either be provided directly, or alternatively, they can automatically be pulled from the subContract if the subContract provides them.

takerArguments are optional and can be provided in the event that the entire order is done off chain and added on-chain only as a way to complete the transaction.

A typical order looks like this:

  // NOTE: This is an example order. Actual structure of
  // values will vary between different subContracts!

  const Order = paradigm.Order;
  let order = new Order({
    subContract: '0xE0183d68d292d617c1f10900C28dC9F280608d9A',
    maker: '0xD78d21C3E3CFB348C5ec5DF3Ad0De81d3d43b2C7',
    makerValues: [
      '0xD78d21C3E3CFB348C5ec5DF3Ad0De81d3d43b2C7', // Maker address
      7000,                                         // Quantity to buy
      25,                                           // Quantity to sell
      '0xe41d2489571d322189246dafa5ebde1f4699f498', // Address of token to buy
      '0x2956356cd2a2bf3202f771f50d3d14a367b48070'  // Address of token to sell

Order objects which are created, signed and posted to the OrderStream network will have more data, but that data can also be directly passed into a new Order via the options hash to construct it.

Signing Orders


Once an order has been generated, it can be cryptographically signed by calling order.make(). The result of this function will be to push v, r, and s values (which represent the signature) to the end of the makerValues array.

When the order is taken, this allows subContracts to verify that the order was indeed created by the maker in the order.

Having the order signed by the maker is strictly optional. Some subContracts do not require a signature. For example, 0x orders are already signed before they come into contact with Paradigm. Therefore, the same signature from the 0x order can be used and does not need to be duplicated.

  // => [..., 28, '0x23...', '0x56...']

Calling order.make() will prompt the user to sign with a tool like MetaMask if they are using a web browser.


The Paradigm OrderStream network requires that anyone posting to the network sign the order. This is in addition to the maker signature, and it is not optional if you want to use the OrderStream network.

It works essentially the same way as make(), except it accepts an address as an argument. If no address is provided, it will default to the maker address.

Also, it doesn't modify the same datastructure. Instead of updating makerValues, it directly sets an attribute called posterSignature.

  // => Should render signature data structure

Using Formatters

Paradigm can be used with existing 3rd party projects like 0x and Dharma. Many 3rd party projects have their own formats for orders which differ from ours.

Formatters can be used to restructure orders into the streamlined format used by the Paradigm Protocol. We provide a few for popular projects in the SubContractExamples project.

An example formatter is our 0x order formatter. It takes a 0x order and restructures it into our standard format:

module.exports = (signedZeroExOrder) => {

  const makerAsset = signedZeroExOrder.makerAssetData.substr(2).match(/.{1,64}/g);
  const takerAsset = signedZeroExOrder.takerAssetData.substr(2).match(/.{1,64}/g);
  const signature = signedZeroExOrder.signature.substr(2).match(/.{1,64}/g);

  signedZeroExOrder.makerAssetData0 = `0x${makerAsset[0]}`;
  signedZeroExOrder.makerAssetData1 = `0x${makerAsset[1]}`;

  signedZeroExOrder.takerAssetData0 = `0x${takerAsset[0]}`;
  signedZeroExOrder.takerAssetData1 = `0x${takerAsset[1]}`;

  signedZeroExOrder.signature0 = `0x${signature[0]}`;
  signedZeroExOrder.signature1 = `0x${signature[1]}`;
  signedZeroExOrder.signature2 = `0x${signature[2]}`;

  return signedZeroExOrder;

This lets us do the following:

const zeroExOrder = {
  takerAddress: paradigm.utils.NULL_ADDRESS,
  feeRecipientAddress: paradigm.utils.NULL_ADDRESS,
  senderAddress: paradigm.utils.NULL_ADDRESS,
  makerAssetAmount: new BigNumber(100),
  takerAssetAmount: new BigNumber(100),
  makerFee: new BigNumber(0),
  takerFee: new BigNumber(0),
  expirationTimeSeconds: new BigNumber(, //In ms so 1000 * now is plenty in the future
  salt: ZeroExImports.generatePseudoRandomSalt(),
  makerAssetData: assetDataUtils.encodeERC20AssetData(tokenA.address),
  takerAssetData: assetDataUtils.encodeERC20AssetData(tokenB.address),
  exchangeAddress: EXCHANGE_ADDRESS

const signedZeroExOrder = {
  signature: await signatureUtils.ecSignHashAsync(web3.currentProvider, orderHashUtils.getOrderHashHex(zeroExOrder), makerAddress, 'DEFAULT')

const order = new paradigm.Order({
  subContract: subContract,
  makerValues: zeroExFormatter(signedZeroExOrder),
  maker: makerAddress });

Posting to the OrderStream


The OrderStream constructor accepts one argument: a Paradigm OrderStream endpoint.

  let orderStream = new OrderStream('');

The ParadigmConnect library actually instantiates a connection to the OrderStream on load. The standard way to set an OrderStream endpoint would be to pass it into the Paradigm constructor.

  let paradigm = new Paradigm({ ..., orderStreamURL: '' });
  let orderStream = paradigm.orderStream;

This attaches an orderStream attribute to the paradigm object.

Adding Orders to the Order Stream


Once you have prepared an order to be posted, you can add it to the Order Stream by calling:


A simple, full example of making an order, preparing it to be posted, and adding to the OrderStream looks like:

  order.make().then(() => {
    order.prepareForPost(currentUser).then(() => {

If the request is successful, you will get back JSON which contains the OrderStream ID as well as the raw data for the order.

Reading from the OrderStream

The listen() method will connect you to the OS via WebSocket to pick up incoming order events. Any middleware or filtering can be applied, based on the needs of your application.

  orderStream.listen((message) => { console.log(message) });

Here is an example of both in action for a front-end web application:

  order.make().then(() => {
    order.prepareForPost(currentUser).then(() => {

  // ...

  orderStream.listen((message) => {
    $('#orders').append(`<div class='card'><div class='card-body'>${}</div></div>`);

Another example of a more complicated set of steps being applied (as "filters") to the order-stream API can be found, as a callback function, here and it's caller here.

Executing Trades

Similarly to how ParadigmConnect allows makers to create orders and push them to the OrderStream, the library also allows execution of trades as takers. For example, you can receive a maker order over the stream API, do some processing inside an application, then use the take() method (described below) to settle the trade through the OrderGateway, and the specified settlement logic.

Taking Orders

Taking an order means submitting a transaction to the Ethereum blockchain that fulfills the order. In the case of something like 0x, this means that you are completing a trade. In the case of something like Dharma, this means you are funding a loan.


The take() method requires two arguments: an address for the taker and an array of takerValues. The takerValues array will contain values required by the subContract. In a simple trade, this could just be the number of tokens the taker wishes to purchase.

  order.take('0x0988F52Cec741bDfB42aD8D80651005C6D221525', [500]);

If in a web browser, this will prompt the taker to submit the transaction with a tool like MetaMask.


This is a utility method that will estimate the gas cost of take(). It requires exactly the same arguments.

  order.estimateGasCost('0x0988F52Cec741bDfB42aD8D80651005C6D221525', [500]);